In order to make the processes involved in the supply chain more efficient, private initiative, governments and different agencies are promoting plans and programs to improve logistics
In recent years, Guanajuato has experienced a dynamic and constant growth of its economy, which is demonstrated by the arrival of new investments as well as in the strengthening of foreign trade.
Only in the first half of this year, Guanajuato recorded a growth of 7.1 % in accordance with the Quarterly Indicator of State Economic Activity (ITAEE, by its Spanish initials) of the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI, by its Spanish initials.) In addition, it ranked third in terms of production value of the manufacturing sector with 365,706 million pesos.
However, to be able to continue in the rhythm of growth and to increase the competitiveness of the companies, it is essential to increase the logistic performance, taking into account all the links of the value chain.
According to the World Bank Logistics Performance Index, Mexico ranked 54th out of 114 surveyed countries.
“It is clear that logistical competitiveness is what can go around the country; in Mexico we have a logistics surplus of approximately 10 % compared, for example, with the United States,” said Luis Quiroz, general director of Guanajuato Inland Port.
Within the Guanajuato Government Plan 2012-2018, Guanajuato Inland Port (GPI, by its Spanish initials) is observed the articulation of a strategic plan in the field of logistics, with the purpose of directly supporting the state companies to be more competitive in the national and international markets.
Therefore, in order to make the processes involved in the supply chain more efficient, private initiative, governments and different agencies are promoting plans and programs to improve logistics.
Luis Quiroz explained that the National Summit of Leaders in Logistics was held in the framework of the Global Logistic Innovation event, held in Leon, Guanajuato.
At the summit, GPI and the National System of Tecnologico de Monterrey, with support from the CIDE, analyzed the creation of the National Center for Logistics and Transport Innovation.
Also, the most important factors that have to be considered to generate logistic competitiveness were determined.
More than 80 actions were proposed, of which 20 proposals were chosen, which will be analyzed by experts in order to be part of the National Logistics Agenda.
Some of the proposals that were suggested were to increase the investment in highly qualified human resources in engineering and logistics; reduce corruption by maximizing the use of information technologies and a profound regulatory improvement; foster a logistics culture of society, business and government; as well as developing an intermodal convergence plan.
Also, connect to the south of the country with greater infrastructure to take advantage of trade agreements; typify the crime of transportation theft as a federal offense; create a national logistics and trade facilitation committee; improve the intermodal connectivity of the ports of the country and generate a true link between universities and the logistics sector, improve the connectivity of logistics corridors, among others.
Luis Quiroz stressed that a theme in which all agreed is that the long-distance land freight must be transformed into rail transport.
“The road infrastructure has been short on the increase in the movement of goods. A full train gives you the equivalent of 150 tractor trucks. The people of CANACAR are fully aware of this and that in the future this has to be a trend, because for them the best business is the short itinerary,” he said.
According to Luis Quiroz, CIDE and Eduardo Sojo, president of the Institute of Planning, Statistics and Geography of Guanajuato (IPLANEG, by its Spanish initials) will analyze these results and a work plan will be made.
Also, it is intended that the National Center for Innovation Logistics and Transportation take these initial actions as part of its initial work agenda.
“With this first agenda, we will meet with multinational organizations such as the OAS and the World Bank to see how we can work on studies and the implementation of infrastructure,” he said.
He said that the State Development Plan of Guanajuato to 2040 will seek to ensure that the issue of logistics is not only state-level, but regional.
“We are a logistics node, but we have to be interconnected. That is the reason why we believe we have to take the lead. We want to be actors and not spectators, we want things to happen,” he said.
He considered that it is necessary to accelerate the transit to and from the ports, to strengthen the infrastructure of Guanajuato towards the northern border and to work on integration with transportation.
“The exchange of goods in the Bajio will continue to increase. Tomorrow's policies are based on research, which is why we are betting that “mindfacture” companies will be set up in Guanajuato,” he said.
The GPI director mentioned that the Global Logistic Innovation opened a series of points to know what is happening in the world in the matter of logistics.
“With this kind of forum we can report the main trends in logistics in the world, for example, that the great technological movement is taking place at sea,” he said.
TRANSFORMATION OF MARITIME PORTS
Given the importance generated in logistic competitiveness, ways to make Maritime Ports of Mexico more efficient and connected are being sought.
Guillermo Ruiz de Teresa, president of the Inter-American Committee on Ports of the OAS, commented that logistics impacts up to 50 % on final product price. This is why the Ministry of Communications and Transportations saw the need to generate investment.
“Ports are the strongest link in the logistics chain and it is important that they give the option to grow to be better connected.”
He said that they have 25 projects in which they will spend 80,000 million pesos, an average of 1,000 million pesos a month.
Of these plans, five are for the generation of new ports, expansions in Sonora, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, Yucatan and Quintana Roo.
Also for the realization of 12 terminals, two special projects for the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Port of Lazaro Cardenas; as well as implementing the Crusade against Hunger program in 10 fishing municipalities.
One of the goals they have is to double the storage capacity to generate better interconnectivity and a solid logistics platform. It will increase from 170 million to 520 million tons of capacity by 2018.
From 2013 to 2016, the movement of vehicles transported in high traffic in Mexican ports grew more than 12.6 %.
“All this serves for us to have these investments, we are talking only in cars in 23 billion dollars and these need inputs and outputs. 42 % of the cars come from outside that is why we must have good capacity.”
In order for this to be possible, they reconsider the laws to invest 80 % in the private sector, 10 % in seaports and the remaining in the tax area.
“We have generated confidence with exporters and importers, as well as with international companies. In the ports we are making the port life friendlier with society.”
In addition, they are committed to combating climate change, which is why projects will make sustainable ports, with a commitment to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, short-lived climate pollutants and the reduction in 51 % of black carbon of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030.
Regarding the National Infrastructure Program, he highlighted that 35 highways have been completed from the 52 projects, 67 highways have been generated, 13 port projects of the 25; while in process are the three passenger trains, a new airport and a telecommunications network.
MORE CONNECTIVITY IN THE AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORTATION SECTOR
The approach that is being given to the logistics sector regarding how it will have to be prepared in all aspects, gives a guideline to turn and see the transportation sector in the State of Guanajuato, Mexico and the world.
Adolfo Elim Luviano Heredia, General Director of Federal Automotive Transportation in the Ministry of Communications and Transportation, said that logistics is a determining factor in Mexico's competitiveness and development.
“Logistics directly benefits all productive activities in the country, because it provides an efficient, timely and lower cost communication platform through which domestic production circulates.”
He asserted that, according to the World Bank, a reduction in the logistic cost of commercial transportation of goods is directly related to the increase in demand, since it is clear that the transport sector can be used to improve competitiveness.
He informed that the Agency for the Regulation of Rail Transport organized a logistical forum in which attendees mentioned the importance of the rail network in the transportation and distribution of hydrocarbon products, given the limited network of pipelines and the impossibility of the railroad reaching throughout the national territory, the efficiency of motor transport has become the most relevant medium for the transportation of goods.
He said that 56 % of the national load is mobilized by road, however, said that there are many challenges to be achieved, one of them road safety, considering that it is necessary to be clear the effects of accidents and assaults, and that this has to do with the certifications and aptitudes of the drivers this is why it is necessary to work in the professionalization of the drivers of the federal automotive transportation.
The second challenge has to do with the connectivity with markets and different modes of transport, therefore efforts must be joined to ensure that Mexico consolidates itself as a Global Logistic Platform with high added value, for which, efforts have been directed towards a system multimodal transport, that there are points of loading and distribution, where time is optimized and costs are improved.
“The federal government has already laid the foundations for the multimodal system to be a reality; however, it must be recognized that there are issues in which it is fundamental to redouble efforts as an authority, to end with issues such as delinquency and lack of connectivity.”
In this sense, Rogelio Montemayor, national president of the National Freight Transport Chamber, mentioned that the topic of regionalizing the logistics issue is fundamental in order to join forces among the states with the greatest movement of land cargo.
“It is a great example for Guanajuato to try to see how we can work together for a common good, because it is not possible to be in the midst of a NAFTA without seeing what we require as transport and as a region.”
He said that a fundamental issue within the sector is the issue of innovation, because this sector is strategic for the country's competitiveness, so it is essential to work alongside the technological advances that are presented at a global level.
He recalled that it is a sector that contributes 7 % of the national GDP, in the State of Guanajuato is 9 %, which makes Guanajuato more important within the logistic terrain, which has repercussions in the states that are around.
CASE OF SUCCESS: INNOVATING IN LOGISTIC INFRASTRUCTURE
The Panama Canal is one of the largest engineering works in history, linking the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific, making a competitive route in the intermodal system.
Ricardo Diaz Urrutia, authority of the Panama Canal, commented that between 2000 and 2006, the transit of ships changed and they saw the opportunity to expand the infrastructure of the interoceanic course.
In it, 120 studies were carried out with 35 companies in more than 40 disciplines in order to support this expansion and it was presented to the Government of that country, which on October 22nd, 2006 approved the expansion.
For 2007, with an investment of 5,250 million dollars begins the expansion program. One of the advantages of this project was that the construction was mostly done in the existing channel, reducing investment costs.
In the expansion of the Panama Canal, they added a third lane for the transit of larger ships, with the construction of a complex of locks in the Atlantic and Pacific, which are wider and deeper than the current ones.
Existing locks allow the passage of ships that can carry up to 5,000 TEU's. After the expansion the Post-Panamax ships can transit through the Channel, with a maximum of 14,000 TEU's.
In addition, they use less water because they installed reuse vats which recycle 60 % of the water used in each lock.
They also set up a Training Center for personnel to be trained in the transit operation with different vessels and weather conditions.
“The expansion was successful to ensure the sustainability of the organization, the main benefit to the user countries is that they have more efficiency in the supply chain and better connectivity.”